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About Water - Water Glossary

  • ACTIVATED CARBON-A water treatment medium, found in block, granulated, or powdered form, which is produced by heating process of carbonaceous materials, such as coal, wood, or coconut shells, in the absence of air, creating a highly porous adsorbent material. Activated carbon is commonly used for dechlorination , organic chemical reduction and radon reduction.
  • ACTIVATED SILICA- A negatively charged colloidal substance generally formed by combining a dilute sodium silicate solution with a dilute acidic solution (or other activant). Generally used as a coagulant aid.
  • AERATION- The process in which air is brought into intimate contact with water, often by spraying water through air, or by bubbling air through water. This process is use  to add oxygen to the water for the oxidation of matter such as iron, or to cause the release of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide from the water.
  • ALKALINITY- Capacity of water to accept acid, ordinarily because of its bicarbonate content. In some cases a part of the alkalinity in water may be do to carbonate, hydroxide, phosphate, or silicate. It is expressed in erms of mg/l of calcium carbonate. Total alkalinity is determined by titration.
  • AMOEBA- A single celled protozoan that is widely found in fresh and salt water. Some types of amoebas cause diseases such as amoebic dysentery.
  • ANION- A particle of matter dissolved in water that has a negative charge. In each system of matter the number of anions is equal to the number of cations (positively charged ions )
  • ANION EXCHANGE- An ion exchange process in which anions in solution are exchanged for other anions from an ion exchanger. In demineralization, for example, bicarbonate, chloride and sulfate anions are removed from solution in exchange for a chemically equivalent number of hydroxide anions from the anion exchange resin.
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